Later jin dynasty

The Later Jìn (Simplified Chinese: 后晋; Traditional Chinese: 後晉; Pinyin: Hòu Jìn) (936-947) was one of the Five Dynasties during the five dynasties and ten kingdoms Period in China. It was founded by Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Gaozu of Later Jin.

Founding of the Later Jin

The first of the Shatuo Turk dynasties was founded in 923 by Li Cunxu, the son of the great Shatuo Turk chieftain Li Keyong. Called the later tang dynasty , it extended Shatuo Turk domains from their base in Shanxi to most of northern China, and into Sichuan . After Li Cunxu's death, his adopted son, Li Siyuan became emperor. However, the relationship with the Khitan, which was vital to the rise of the Shatuo Turks to power, had soured.

Shi Jingtang, son-in-law of Li Cunxu, rebelled against him, and with the help of the Khitan, declared himself emperor the Later jin dynasty in 936.

Territorial extent

The Later jin dynasty held essentially the same territories as the later tang dynasty , except for Sichuan in the southwest, which was lost by later tang dynasty in its waning years (as the region became independent as later shu).

The other major exception was a region known as the Sixteen Prefectures. By this time in history, the Khitan had formed the Liao Empire out of their steppe base. They had also become a major power broker in northern China. They forced the Later Jin to cede the strategic "Sixteen Prefectures" to the Liao. Consisting of a region about 70 to 100 miles wide and including modern-day Beijing and points westward, it was considered a highly strategic region, and gave the Liao even more influence in northern China.

Relations with the Khitan

The Later Jin had often been criticized for being a puppet of the emerging Liao empire. The help of their powerful northern neighbors was vital in the formation of the Later jin dynasty, and the cession of the Sixteen Prefectures led to their derision as being the servants of the Khitan.

However, after the death of the founder of the dynasty, Shi Jingtang, his adopted son (and nephew) and successor Shi Chonggui defied the Khitan, resulting in the latter invading the territory of the Later Jin in 946 and 947, resulting in the destruction of the Later jin dynasty.

Sovereigns in Period of five dynasties and ten kingdoms 907- 960

Temple Names (Miao Hao廟號)

Posthumous Names (Shi Hao諡號)

Personal Names

Period of Reigns

Era Names (Nian Hao年號) and their according range of years

高祖 Gāozǔ

Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign

石敬瑭 Shí Jìngtáng

936 -942

Tiānfú (天福)936 -942

Did not exist

出帝 Chūdì

石重貴 Shí Chóngguì

942 -947

Tiānfú (天福)942 -944
Kāiyùn (開運)944 -947

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