Empress Xiaoshengxian

Empress Xiaoshengxian (Manchu: Hiyoošungga Enduringge Temgetulehe Hūwanghu; 1 January 1693 - 2 March 1777) was a consort of the Yongzheng Emperor of the qing dynasty. She was the birth mother of Yongzheng's son and successor, the Qianlong Emperor.


Empress Xiaoshengxian was born of the Manchu Niuhuru clan, which was under the Bordered Yellow Banner of the Eight Banners. Her personal name is unknown. She was the daughter of Lingzhu (凌柱), a Fourth Class Dianyi (典儀; a type of official appointment).

Lady Niuhuru was married to Yinzhen, Prince Yong of the First Rank, in 1705, and was given the title of "Gege". In 1711 she gave birth to Yinzhen's fourth son, Hongli.

In 1722 the Kangxi Emperor died and was succeeded by Yinzhen, who became known as the Yongzheng Emperor. Lady Niuhuru was elevated to the status of Consort Xi (熹妃) a year later. In 1730 she was granted the title of Noble Consort Xi (熹貴妃). When Yongzheng's first wife Empress Xiaojingxian died in 1731, Lady Niuhuru was placed in charge of Yongzheng's other concubines.

The Yongzheng Emperor died in 1735 and was succeeded by Hongli, who became the Qianlong Emperor. Lady Niuhuru was promoted to the status of Empress Dowager Chongqing (崇慶皇太后).

The Qianlong Emperor often visited his mother. Lady Niuhuru also always accompanied Qianlong on his excursions to northern and southern China. In her old age when Lady Niuhuru was no longer fit to travel, the Qianlong Emperor stopped all his trips and only resumed after her death. The Qianlong Emperor held his mother in high regard and often consulted her for advice. Lady Niuhuru's 60th birthday was lavishly celebrated. Chinese poems were read in her honour and sacrifices were made to the gods by the Qianlong Emperor and the entire imperial court.

Lady Niuhuru died in 1777 at the age of 85. She was interred in a separate tomb in the western qing Tombs in Hebei .


1692-1705: Lady Niuhuru (鈕祜祿氏)

1711-1723: Gege (格格)

1723-1730: Consort Xi (熹妃)

1730-1735: Noble Consort Xi (熹貴妃)

1735-1777: Empress Dowager Chongqing (崇慶皇太后)

Last update 28-05-2012

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