Hongxi Emperor

The Hongxi Emperor (洪熙 [xʊ̌ŋɕí]; 16 August 1378–29 May 1425) was the fourth emperor of the ming dynasty in China. He succeeded his father, the Yongle Emperor, in 1424. His era name means "Vastly bright".

Biography

Hongxi was born on 16 August 1378 and was educated by prominent Confucian tutors. He often acted as regent in Nanjing or Beijing during his father's northern military campaigns.


Already in May 1421, during the reign of the Yongle Emperor, an order was issued for the suspension of Zheng He's maritime expeditions, apparently on account of their cost (although the order apparently did not affect the 6th voyage of Zheng He, staged around that time). Zhu Gaochi, as soon as he became the Hongxi Emperor in September 1424, canceled Zheng He's maritime expeditions permanently and abolished frontier trade of tea for horses as well as missions for gold and pearls to Yunnan and Vietnam. He restored disgraced Confucian officials, such as Yongle's minister of revenue Xia Yanji (imprisoned since 1421), and reorganized the administration to give high ranks to his close advisors. Hanlin academicians became grand secretaries, and they dismantled his father's unpopular militaristic policies to restore civil government. Hongxi improved finances by canceling requisitions for lumber, gold, and silver. Taxes were remitted so that vagrant farmers could return home, especially in the overburdened Yangtze River Delta. Hongxi appointed a commission to investigate taxes. He overruled his secretaries by ordering that grain should be sent immediately to relieve disaster areas.


Emperor Hongxi ordered that the capital be moved back to Nanjing from Beijing (which had been made the capital by the Yongle Emperor in 1421). However he died, probably of a heart attack, a month later in May 1425. His son had been declared heir apparent and became the Xuande Emperor at age 26. Although Hongxi had a short reign, he is credited with reforms that made lasting improvements, and his liberal policies were continued by his son.


Personal information

Father

Yongle Emperor


Mother

Empress Ren Xiao Wen (birth name: Xu Yihua)


Consorts

Formal Title

Maiden Name

Died

Issue

Empress Cheng Xiao Zhao

誠孝昭皇后

Zhang (張)

1442

Zhu Zhanji, Xuande Emperor

Zhu Zhanyong, Prince Jing of Yue

Zhu Zhanshan, Prince Xian of Xiang

Princess Jiaxing

Noble Consort Gong Su

恭肅貴妃

Guo (郭)

1425

Zhu Zhankai, Prince Huai of Teng

Zhu Zhanji, Prince Zhuang of Liang

Zhu Zhanyan, Prince Gong of Wei

Consort Zhen Hui Su

貞惠淑妃

Wang (王)

1425

-

Consort Hui An Li

惠安麗妃

Wang (王)

1425

-

Consort Gong Xi Shun

恭僖順妃

Tan (譚)

1425

-

Consort Gong Jing Chong

恭靖充妃

Huang (黃)

1425

-

Consort Zhen Jing Jing

貞靜敬妃

Zhang (張)

-

-

Consort Dao Xi Li

悼僖麗妃

Li (李)

-

-

Consort Zhen Jing Shun

貞靜順妃

Zhang (張)

-

-

Consort Xian

賢妃

Li (李)

-

Zhu Zhanxun, Prince Jing of Zheng

Zhu Zhanyin, Prince Xian of Qi

Zhu Zhanyu, Prince Jing of Huai

Princess Zhending

Consort Shun

順妃

Zhang (張)

-

Zhu Zhangang, Prince Xian of Jing

Consort Hui

惠妃

Zhao (趙)

-

Zhu Yuantong, Princess Qingdou


Sons

Name

Formal Title

Born

Died

Mother

Spouse

Issue

Notes

Zhu Zhanji

朱瞻基

The Xuande Emperor

16 Mar 1399

Beijing

31 Jan 1435

Empress Cheng Xiao Zhao

Hu Shanxiang, Empress Gong Rang Zhang

Lady Sun, Empress Xiao Gong Zhang

fourteen concubines

Zhu Qizhen, Zhengtong Emperor

Zhu Qiyu, Jingtai Emperor

Princess Shunde

Princess Yongqing

Princess Changde

Zhu Zhanxun

朱瞻埈

Prince Jing of Zheng

鄭靖王

27 Mar 1404

8 June 1466

Consort Xian

-

Zhu Qiying, Prince Jian of Zheng

Was created Prince of Zheng on 1 Nov 1424

Zhu Zhanyong

朱瞻墉

Prince Jing of Yue

越靖王

9 Feb 1405

5 Aug 1439

Empress Cheng Xiao Zhao

Lady Wu

(daughter of Wu Sheng (吳昇))

none

Was created Prince of Yue 1 Nov 1424

Zhu Zhanyin

朱瞻垠

Prince Xian of Qi

蘄獻王

1406

7 Nov 1421

Consort Xian

none

none

Was posthumously created Prince of Qi on 10 Oct 1422

Zhu Zhanshan

朱瞻墡

Prince Xian of Xiang

襄憲王

4 April 1406

18 Feb 1478

Empress Cheng Xiao Zhao

-

Zhu Qiyong, Prince Ding of Xiang

Was created Prince of Xiang in 1424

Zhu Zhangang

朱瞻堈

Prince Xian of Jing

荊憲王

-

1453

Consort Shun

-

Zhu Qihao, Prince Jing of Jing

Zhu Qijian, Prince Huijing of Duchang

Was created Prince of Jing in 1424

Zhu Zhanyu

朱瞻墺

Prince Jing of Huai

淮靖王

28 Jan 1409

30 Nov 1446

Consort Xian

Lady Xiao

(daughter of Nancheng military commander Xiao Zhong (南城兵馬指揮肖忠))

Zhu Qiquan, Prince Kang of Huai

Zhu Qibin, Prince Xi of Poyang

Zhu Qiyue, Prince Gonghe of Yongfeng

three daughters

Was created Prince of Huai on 1 Nov 1424

Zhu Zhankai

朱瞻塏

Prince Huai of Teng

滕懷王

Nov 1409

26 Aug 1425

Noble Consort Gong Su

none

none

Was created Prince of Teng on 1 Nov 1424

Zhu Zhanji

朱瞻垍

Prince Zhuang of Liang

梁莊王

7 July 1411

3 Feb 1441

Noble Consort Gong Su

Lady Ji

(daughter of Ji Zhan (紀詹))

Consort Wei, concubine

(daughter of Wei Heng (魏亨))

none

Was created Prince of Liang 1 Nov 1424

Zhu Zhanyan

朱瞻埏

Prince Gong of Wei

衛恭王

9 Jan 1417

3 Jan 1439

Noble Consort Gong Su

-

-

Was created Prince of Wei in 1424


Daughters

Title

Name

Born

Died

Date Married

Spouse

Princess Jiaxing

嘉興公主

Zhu (朱)

(personal name unknown)

1409

9 Mar 1439

1428

Jing Yuan

井源

Princess Qingdou

慶都公主

Zhu (朱)

Yuantong (圓通)

9 Oct 1409

12 June 1440

8 Dec 1428

Jiao Jing

焦敬

Princess Qinghe

清河公主

Zhu (朱)

(personal name unknown)

1433

1429

Li Ming

李銘

Princess De'an

德安公主

Zhu (朱)

(personal name unknown)

Princess Yanping

延平公主

Zhu (朱)

(personal name unknown)

Princess Deqing

德慶公主

Zhu (朱)

(personal name unknown)

Princess Zhending

真定公主

Zhu (朱)

(personal name unknown)

1450

1429

Wang Yi

王誼


Last update 05-06-2012

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