Liu Chang

Liu Chang (Chinese: 劉鋹; pinyin: Liú Chǎng; Wade–Giles: Liu Ch'ang) (942–980 CE) was the last King of the Kingdom of southern han (南漢; pinyin: Nanhan) (917–971) during the five dynasties and ten kingdoms Period in southern coastal China.


His name was originally Liu Jixing (simplified Chinese: 刘继兴; traditional Chinese: 劉繼興; pinyin: Liú Jìxīng), and was the Prince of Wei. He succeeded Cheng because he was the eldest son. He only left eunuchs in power in his court.


When Liu became Emperor, he was sixteen years old. During reign, he spent most of his time having sexual intercourse with women, including Persian women (波斯女子)who were prominent in his harem. His particular favourite was one young girl he nicknamed "beautiful sow" or "Seductive Pig" (媚猪) (Mei Zhu or Mei Chu). Liu doted on this young Persian woman, who was also reportedly sixteen years old. The Persian girl was called a "princess". Liu liked the Persian girl (Mei Zhu) because of her brown skin color, described in French as "peau mate" (olive or light brown skinned). He and the Persian girl also liked to forced young couples to go naked and played with them in the palace.

"Peau mate" has been alternately translated as "olive skin" "dull", "lustreless" "pale" or "dark", mainly to people who have similar skin color to Arabs.

Persians were known as 波斯 (Bosi or Po-ssu).

The "rear palace" was where the Persian girls wand other women were kept, which was where they and Ch'ang engaged in intercourse.

The Wu Tai Shï says that Liu Ch'ang [劉鋹, Emperor of the Southern han dynasty reigning at Canton, about A.D. 9]. "was dallying with his palace girls and Persian [波斯] women in the inner apartments, and left the government of his state to the ministers."

The History of the Five Dynasties (Wu Tai Shih) stated that- "Liu Chang then with his court- ladies and Po-ssu woman, indulged in amorous affiurs in the harem".

Descriptions of the sexual activities between Liu Chang and the Persian woman in the song dynasty book the "Ch'ing-i-lu" by T'ao Ku were so graphic that the "Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library), Issue 2" refused to provide any quotes from it while discussing the subject.

In addition to being in Liu's harem, Persian women lived in Canton for a large period from the 900s to the 1100s AD. Wearing many earrings was a fashion among them.

Besides spending time with his Persian concubines, he also wasted much money on renovating his palaces.

A female shamaness was also prominent at Liu Chang's court.

He was the last Emperor of southern han, as his kingdom was defeated and taken over by the song dynasty in 972. He reigned for a total of 14 years.

Last update 03-06-2012

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