Olugh Mokhammad of Kazan

Olugh Mokhammad (? - 1445) Tatar: Oluğ Möxämmäd, [ɔˈluɣ mœxæmˈmæt]), also known as Ulugh Muhammed and Ulanus, was twice Khan of the golden horde and founder of the Kazan Khanate.


Olugh Mokhammad was most likely the son of Jalal ad-Din khan, and the grandson of Tokhtamysh, although he may have been descended from Hassan Jefai, a relative of Tokhtamysh. Either way, he was a descendant of Jochi and therefore a Ghengisid.


Olugh first came to power following the death of Yeremferden. His main competitor for control of the Horde was his cousin Dawlat Berdi, The son of Yeremferden. For much of his reigh Olugh Mokhammad controlled Sarai, and was therefore seen as the more legitimate ruler within the Horde, although it was captured by his rival after the Siege of Sarai in 1420 and held by him for two years.

In 1422 Baraq defeated both Olugh and Dawlat and drove them out of the country. while Dawlat remained in the outskirts of Crimea, Olugh fled to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and plead for assistance from Vytautas the Great. With this assistance he was able to march on Baraq and capture Sarai.

After regaining control over the Khanate, Olugh marched on Crimea, where Dawlat Berdi had re-established himself following Baraq's defeat and death. After a series of indecisive skirmishes his invasion was cut short due to the death of Vaytautas, which forced Olugh to concentrate his forces on Lithuania, where he supported Sigismund I Kestutian against Svitrigaila in the fight for the Lithuanian throne. Svitrigaila in turn supported Dawlat Berdi and later Sayid Ahmad I, as did Vasili II of Russia.

Olugh lost control of the golden horde again in the late 1430s and fled east, where he captured Kazan and founded the Kazan Khanate. From that location he waged a series of successful wars against Muscovy which culminated in the capture and ransom of Vasili II.

Last update 18-06-2012

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