Örüg Temür Khan

Örüg Temür (Chinese: 兀雷帖木兒汗) or Gulichi (Chinese: 鬼力赤) was a Mongol leader who temporarily throned himself Khan of the Mongols in the early 15th century. He might be the same person, Ugechi Khashikha (Chinese: 烏格齊哈什哈) who appeared in Mongolian history. Khashikha means prince or duke in Tungusic languages. According to René Grousset and Henry H.Howorth, he was a leader of the oirats, particularly Torguud clan. Various sources tell us that Örüg Temür was descended from either Ariq Böke or Genghis Khan's younger brothers, Hasar and Temüge. Some scholars say that he was apparently a descendant of Ogedai. Thus, it is still unclear whether he was an Oirat or Genghisid.

Elbeg Khan (1400–1402) appointed Bahamu (Batlai, Mahamu, Muhamud) ruler of the Four oirats after he had mistakenly executed his father Taifu. The Khagan's decision made the Oirat leader Gulichi (or Orug Temur?) disappointed. Gulichi and Bahamu organized the plot to kill Elbeg and succeeded; the former seized the family and property of the late Khagan. Gulichi became the new Khan in 1402, and abolished the name yuan dynasty. Gulichi appointed Arughtai of the Asud chingsang of Eastern Mongolia. According to the Ming annals, he might have nominated a Tatar Khan.

Gulichi and his principal retainer, Arughtai, rejected Yongle Emperor's overtures to establish tributary relationship with the Mongolians. They also poisoned Engke-Temur (Энхтөмөр), prince of the Chagatayid Hami, who allied with the Ming.

However, he was defeated by Öljei Temür Khan, the Borjigin monarch, in 1403. In 1408, his former chingsang and noyan Arughtai killed him after a conflict erupted between them. He was succeeded by his son Esekhu (died 1425).

Last update 18-06-2012

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