Rinchinbal Khan, Emperor Ningzong of Yuan

Rinchinbal (Mongolian: Rinčinbal, Ринчинбал; Rinchinbal from Tibetan rin chen dpal), also known as Emperor Ningzong of Yuan (Chinese: 元寧宗, May 1, 1326-December 14, 1332), was a son of Kuśala who was briefly installed to the throne of the yuan dynasty, but died soon after he seized the throne of Great Khan of the Mongols and Emperor of China. He was the shortest-reigning Mongol emperor in history.


He was the second son of Kuśala (Emperor Mingzong) and a younger brother of Toghun Temür (Emperor Huizong). He was mothered by Babusha of the Naiman tribe when his father lived in exile in Central Asia under the Chagatai Khanate.

When his father Kuśala died (was supposedly killed with poison by El Temür) and was succeeded by his younger brother Tugh Temür, Rinchinbal was appointed to Prince of Fu. Tugh Temur made his son Aratnadara heir apparent in January 1331. In order to secure her son's throne, Tugh Temur's Khatun Budashiri executed Rinchinbal's mother, Babusha, and exiled Toghan Temur to Korea. These proved unnecessary, however, Aratnadara died one month after his designation as heir.

Although Tugh Temür had a son named El Tegüs when he died in 1332, it is said that on his deathbed the Khagan expressed remorse for what he had done to his elder brother and his intention to pass the throne to Toghan Temur, Kusala's eldest son, instead of his own son. The grand councilor El Temür resisted letting Kuśala's eldest son Toghun Temür accede to the throne since he was suspected of having poisoned his father Kuśala. When Tugh Temur's widow and El Tegüs's mother Budashiri Khatun respected Tugh Temür's will of making Kuśala's son succeed the throne, the 6 year old Rinchinbal was chosen. While Toghun Temür was kept far away from the capital Dadu, Rinchinbal was in Dadu and had become favored by Tugh Temür. Rinchinbal enthroned as the new emperor on 23 October 1332, but he died two months or 53 days later.

El Temür again asked Budashiri to install El Tegüs but it was declined again. He had no choice but to invite Toghun Temür back from far-away Guangxi in southwest China.

Last update 18-06-2012

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