Yunreng (6 June 1674 - 27 January 1725), born Yinreng, was a Manchu prince of the qing dynasty and heir apparent to the Chinese imperial throne for two terms between 1675 and 1712.


Yunreng was born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan as the seventh son of the Kangxi Emperor, but was the second eldest of Kangxi's sons to survive into adulthood. He was given the infant name "Baocheng" (保成), and was renamed "Yinreng" when he became older. His mother was the Kangxi Emperor's first empress, Empress Xiaochengren from the Heseri clan, who was also a niece of Songgotu (one of the four regents in Kangxi's early reign). She died not long after giving birth to Yinreng, and was greatly lamented by Kangxi.

The Kangxi Emperor personally taught Yinreng to read and he proclaimed Yinreng as heir to the throne when the latter was only a year old. Under the tutelage of several scholar-officials, Yinreng became well-versed in both the Chinese and Manchu languages. Between 1696 and 1697, when the Kangxi Emperor was away twice on military campaigns against Galdan Khan of the Zunghar Khanate, Yinreng was appointed as regent to supervise affairs in the capital Beijing . Despite scandals and accusations of immorality, Yinreng remained in his father's favour and was given the Western Gardens (西花園) of Beijing as his residence.

In 1703 Yinreng's granduncle Songgotu was found guilty of attempting to murder the Kangxi Emperor, along with a series of corruption charges, and was imprisoned and died shortly afterwards. Yinreng gradually fell out of his father's favour as a result. In 1708, during a hunting expedition in Rehe, the Kangxi Emperor accused Yinreng of immorality, sexual impropriety, usurping power, and treason. Yinreng was stripped off his position as crown prince and imprisoned. When it was later discovered that the First Prince Yinzhi had employed lamas to cast evil spells on Yinreng, the Kangxi Emperor pardoned Yinreng in 1709 and restored him as heir apparent. In the following three years, Yinreng's condition deteriorated and the Kangxi Emperor became convinced that Yinreng was insane. Consequently, in 1712, Yinreng was deposed again and placed in perpetual confinement.

In 1722 the Kangxi Emperor died and was succeeded by his fourth son Yinzhen, who became known as the Yongzheng Emperor. Yinreng changed his name to Yunreng to avoid naming taboo because the Chinese character for "Yin" (胤) in "Yinreng" is the same as the one in Yongzheng's personal name "Yinzhen" (胤禛). Yunreng died three years later in 1725 while still being incarcerated. He was granted the posthumous title of "Prince Limi of the First Rank" (和碩理密親王).

The bitter factionalism between the Kangxi Emperor's sons and the dispute over the succession prompted the Yongzheng Emperor to establish a practice of writing a secret imperial edict on who would succeed to the throne, and sealing the edict in a box behind a tablet in the main hall of the Forbidden City. The edict would only be publicly revealed upon the death of the reigning emperor.

Personal information


Kangxi Emperor


Empress Xiaochengren, from the Heseri clan, daughter of Gabula.


Primary spouse

Lady Guwalgiya (瓜爾佳氏), daughter of Banner Commander (都统) and Count (伯) Shiwenbing (石文炳).

Secondary spouses:

Lady Ligiya (李佳氏), daughter of Qingche Duwei (輕車都尉) Shu'erdeku (舒爾德庫).

Lady Cenggiya (程佳氏), daughter of Chengshifu (程世福).

Lady Tanggiya (唐佳氏)

Lady Wanggiya (王佳氏)

Lady Lingiya (林佳氏)

Lady Fangiya (范佳氏)

Lady Linggiya (劉佳氏)


Lady Liu (劉氏)

Lady Qian (錢氏)

Lady Qiu (邱氏)

Lady Zhu (朱氏)

Lady Qi (祁氏)

Lady Pei (裴氏)


Eldest son (4 February 1692 - 27 December 1701), unnamed, born to Lady Ligiya.

Hongxi (弘晳; 25 August 1694 - 26 October 1742), born to Lady Lingiya, inherited Yunreng's title "Prince Li of the First Rank" (理親王).

Hongjin (弘晉; 14 November 1696 - 23 April 1717), born to Lady Lingiya, granted the title of "Duke Who Receives Grace and Assists the Nation" (奉恩輔國公).

Fourth son (1 November 1704 - 4 February 1706), unnamed, born to Lady Tanggiya.

Fifth son (16 December 1708), unnamed, born to Lady Liu, died on the same day he was born.

Hongyan (弘曣; 5 August 1712 - 19 May 1750), born to Lady Tanggiya, granted the title of "Duke Kexi Who Receives Grace and Assists the Nation" (奉恩輔國恪僖公).

Hongtiao (弘晀; 16 June 1714 - 28 August 1774), born to Lady Wanggiya, granted the title of "Duke Who Assists the Nation" (輔國公) but later stripped off.

Eighth son (1 March 1715 - 4 July 1726), unnamed, born to Lady Qian.

Hongyao (弘暚; 3 July 1716 - 9 February 1783), born to Lady Qiu, served as a Third Class Imperial Guard (三等侍衛).

Hongwei (弘㬙; 27 January 1719 - 25 September 1780), born to Lady Cenggiya, granted the title of "Prince Like of the Second Rank" (多羅理恪郡王).

Hongbing (弘昞; 8 February 1720 - 4 May 1763), born to Lady Wanggiya.

Honghan (弘晥; 6 November 1724 - 29 May 1775), born to Lady Cenggiya, granted the title of "Duke Who Receives Grace and Assists the Nation" (奉恩輔國公).


Eldest daughter (27 May 1693 - June 1693), unnamed, born to Lady Ligiya.

Second daughter (11 March 1694 - March 1694), unnamed, born to Lady Ligiya.

Third daughter (25 September 1697 - 5 May 1735), personal name unknown, born to Lady Guwalgiya, granted the title of a junzhu (郡主). In June 1720 she married Tümed Beile Da'erhan Alabutan (達爾漢 阿喇布坦).

Fourth daughter (16 March 1706 - 16 March 1706), unnamed, born to Lady Fanggiya.

Fifth daughter (4 January 1708 - February/March 1712), unnamed, born to Lady Fanggiya.

Heshuo Princess Shushen (和碩淑慎公主; 24 January 1708 - 23 October 1784), personal name unknown, born to Lady Tanggiya. In December 1726 she married Guanyinbao (觀音保; d. 1735) of the Borjigit clan, who was a relative of Empress Xiaohuizhang.

Seventh daughter (25 November 1711 - November/December 1716), unnamed, born to Lady Liu.

Eighth daughter (2 March 1714 - 21 November 1760), personal name unknown, born to Lady Cenggiya, granted the title of a junzhu (郡主). In January or February 1730 she married Pengsukelashi (彭蘇克拉氏) of the Borjigit clan from the Aohan Banner.

Ninth daughter (10 January 1715 - 12 July 1762), personal name unknown, born to Lady Lingiya, granted the title of a xianzhu (縣主). In December 1729 or January 1730 she married Cewangdorji (策旺多爾濟; d. 1 August 1751), a Mongol prince from the Aohan Banner.

Tenth daughter (27 July 1717 - February/March 1720), unnamed, born to Lady Cenggiya.

11th daughter (27 July 1717 - 29 March 1725), unnamed, born to Lady Linggiya.

12th daughter (14 November 1717 - 30 April 1776), personal name unknown, born to Lady Qi, granted the title of a junzhu (郡主). In January or February 1732 she married First Class Tabunang (一等塔布囊) Kaying'a (喀英阿) of the khorchin mongols.

13th daughter (4 February 1718 - May/June 1719), unnamed, born to Lady Zhu.

14th daughter (25 April 1722 - August/September 1722), unnamed, born to Lady Pei.

Last update 07-06-2012

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