Yufuluo Chanyu

Yufuluo (150–196; reg. 188–195 CE) was a puppet Chanyu of the southern Xiongnu during the late han dynasty period of Chinese history. In 188, he was appointed to the Chanyu position by the Chinese imperial court following a slaying of his father Qiangqu, also a Han puppet from ineligible succession line, and would later gain the Xiongnu title of Chizhisizhu.


The southern Xiongnu were a branch of the eastern Xiongnu that followed the rebellious pretender Huhanye and in 51-53 BC moved en masse within the Han borders under protection of Chinese. Since the times of Huhanye, the status of the southern Xiongnu was loyal allies of the han dynasty. The southern Xiongnu enjoyed material support of the old heqin treaty, and in return guarded the Chinese northern borders and participated in the Chinese external and internecine conflicts as long as the Chinese court respected their independence. However, when the Han imperial court attempted to appoint an ineligible for the crown Western Jükü-Prince Yufuluo from ineligible Right Wing as a Chanyu, instead of respecting the traditional election, the southern Xiongnu dissented and elected a lawful alternate Hyuibu Gudu-heu. Later they expelled Yufuluo, who had to seek safety in exile at the Han imperial court.

Qiangqu, Yufuluo's father, was dispatching Xiongnu troops to serve in Chinese armies over objections of his subjects. As a result, Qiangqu was slain by a group of tribal leaders who set up a high-ranking Xiongnu nobleman from the traditional line of succession as their Chanyu, and rejected the right of Yufuluo to rule. Though Yufuluo attempted to ask for assistance from the han dynasty against his tribesmen, he was not successful in this endeavor. Instead, Yufuluo's army allied with a group of former Yellow Turban rebels and plundered Han territories. At that time the Han court collapsed after Emperor Ling of Han died in 189, and in the han dynasty arose a great turmoil. Yufuluo, with several thousand cavalry went to the warlords Yuan Shao and Zhang Yang when they camped at Henei. At that time, Yufuluo's followers of the Sui tribe, judging by the size of his troops, numbered 10-15,000; while Huchuquan ruled over the remaining 100,000 southern Xiongnu people. Neither Zhang Yang nor Yufuluo were satisfied with the authority of Yuan Shao, and decided to join forces and fight against Yuan Shao.

In 189 Hyuibu Gudu-heu died, and was replaced by Yufuluo's younger brother Huchuquan as southern Xiongnu Chanyu.

In 192, the exiled puppet Chanyu Yufuluo fought on the side of the offshoot of the Yellow Turban Rebellion known as Heishan bandits (Black Mountain Bandits) led by a commander Sui Gu; another warlord commander Cao Cao campaigned against them and defeated their army. Following Cao Cao's victory, the Heishan bandits forces and the Yufuluo tribe were weakened. Shortly after their defeat, a detachment of Heishan bandits and Yufuluo's forces allied with Yuan Shu, one of Yuan Shao's and Cao Cao's enemies. When Yuan Shu tried to flee to Fengqiu, Yufuluo and a few of the Heishan bandits joined Yuan Shu's armies, and continued to suffer defeats from Cao Cao at Fengqiu and other places.

Weakened by multiple defeats, Yufuluo relocated to Pingyang, a county close to the Fen River. In about 196 he died and the remnants of his tribe rejoined his brother Huchuquan. The southern Xiongnu under Huchuquan would later support Yuan Shao's successors until the Battle of Pingyang. After that battle Huchuquan and his following surrendered to Cao Cao, Cao Cao divided them and settled in Bing Province. There they grew in population and later become a threat to the jin dynasty.

Yufuluo was a descendant of Chanyus of the Xiongnu's Luanti royal clan, and an ancestor of Liu Yuan, a founder of the (Former) Han Zhao state.

Personal information




Liu Bao

Last update 05-04-2012

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