Great Wall in Liaoning

Liaoning Province is an area, which is full of Great Wall resources, because many dynasties put substantial labor and money into the construction of the defensive constructions. About 14 prefecture-level cities in Liaoning Province have relics of the ancient Great Wall. Now, the known ones in this region measure 2,350 kilometers (1,460 miles) and Liaoning is proud to have the easternmost part of Great Wall of Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644), which is at the Hushan instead of the Shanhaiguan Pass in Hebei.

The history of the construction of this defensive systems can be traced back to the Spring and Autumn Period (770 – 221 BC). During that time, every state was active in building protective fortifications against their enemies. Yan State, one of the seven powerful warring states at the time, was no exception. The western region of today's Liaoning Province is proved to be under the jurisdiction of Yan State, so here one can find many relics related to the walls from that period. In Jianping County, one can find the earliest Great Wall in Liaoning from Yan State, which was originally called the "earth dragon" or "stone dragon" by the local inhabitants. During the reign of Yan State, two lines of the walls were constructed, the southern branch and the northern one. Now the outline of the northern one is not clear, but a few earth mounds reveal where the northern one once built.

The construction of the wall didn't end in the following dynasties such as Han Dynasty (202BC - 220AD) and Ming Dynasty. It is said that the 250 kilometers (155 miles) long construction in Han Dynasty can be seen clearly in Jianping, and in the province.

The Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty is the best preserved among all the relics of the walls in Liaoning Province. In the Ming Dynasty, areas along the wall were divided into seven regions and the Liaodong Region and the Jizhen Region are two of them, most of the landscape belongs to Liaoning Province today. So the Wall in Ming Dynasty in Liaoning Province contains two parts, Jiumenkou section, belonging to the old Jizhen and the whole sections in ancient Liaodong Region, starting from the Zhuizi Mountain to Hushan. The Jiumenkou and the Hushan sections are open to the public as tourism spots, while the Zhuzi Mountain part attracts many hikers.

The Great Wall in ancient Liaodong Region is an important branch of Ming Dynasty relics in Liaoning Province. It is divided into three parts by Liao River. The part on the west side of Liao River is the best protected among the three part. The middle part along the Liao River, being constructed by loess, has been badly destroyed with the time passed by. The passes on the Great Wall lying on the eastern side of the river have already been destroyed, too.

Zhuizi Mountain Great Wall lies at the border of Liaoning Province and Hebei Province. Because of the position, the Zhuizi Mountain is a connection of the three sections, the walls in Liaodong Region, the ones in Jizhen Region and the Shanhaiguan Pass in Hebei. Connecting by the Zhuzi Mountain, the Liaozhen Great Wall lies to the east side and the Jizhen Great Wall to the west side. On its west side, next to Zhuzi Mountain, five best preserved successive beacons in this section is a distinctive feature. These five successive beacons are constructed on the peak of five steep mountains.

The Xiaohekou Great Wall was constructed in 1831 in the Ming Dynasty, which is now in Suizhong County. Because it was built on a steep mountain and has a grand structure, this section is considered as "The Third Badaling" by the hikers. The Xiaohekou section was mainly constructed by stones with well carved patterns of plum blossom and orchid carved on them, which give people a feeling of femininity. Now this section is under development and will open to the public on some days. However, if you like climbing and want to enjoy the primitive natural beauty, you can choose to go any time.

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